Vanity and Virtue:
Allegories on the Pursuit of Riches

1 [ The Unhappy Lot of the Rich ]

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Engraving by Phillip Galle (1537–1612), after Maarten van Heemskerck (1498–1574). Joannes Galle (1600–76). "exc." [Antwerp, 1563].
17.1 x 23.2 cmCF b10
Plate one of his series of six engravings after Heemskerck with this title, published in 1563. A later state, shown here, called Divitum Misera Sors, was issued by Joannes Galle. Illustration of Matthew 19:23-24. A rich man tries to enter the gate to Heaven, but his money bags hold him back. Behind him, three men try to lead a camel through the eye of a needle.
2 [ The Unhappy Lot of the Rich ]

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Engraving by Philip Galle (1537–1612), after Maarten van Heemskerck (1498–1574). [Antwerp, 1563].
17 x 23 cmCF b11
First state. Plate four of his series of six engravings after Heemskerck with this title. Depiction of the qualities that accompany money: Queen Money's car is drawn by Danger and Fear, while Robbery hides under her cloak. She is followed by Folly, Envy, Theft, and the Entire Populace.
3 [ The Triumph of Riches ]

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Engraving by Dirck Volkertsz. Coornhert (1519–90), or Cornelis Cort (1533–78), after Maarten van Heemskerck (1498–1574). Published by Hieronymus Cock (1510–70). [Antwerp, 1564].
22.2 x 29.4 cmCF b5 xx
First state. Plate two of the series of eight engravings after Heemskerck entitled Circulus vicissitudinis rerum humanarum (Cycle of the vicissitudes of human affairs.) Riches, the mother of Pride, rides on the car named Fame, which is pulled by Fraud and Rapine. Following Betrayal, Usury, and Lust are False Joy and other Idle Pleasures.
4 [ An Allegorical Hunt ]

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Engraved and published by Philip Galle (1537–1612), after Johannes Stradanus (1536–1605). [Antwerp, 1578].
21.7 x 24 cm; lower plate mark trimmedCF b3 xx
Money is chased by a peasant whose hounds are Frugality, Industry, and Labor; Prodigality, whose hounds are Rapine and Chance; and Avarice, whose hounds are Usury and Fraud. Justice is trampled under foot.
5 [ The Fight of the Money-Bags and the Coffers ]

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Engraving by Pieter van der Heyden (fl. 1557), after Pieter Breughel the Elder (1525–69.) Joannes Galle (1600–76), "excudit." [Belgium, 1558?].
23.7 x 30.4 cmCF b4 xx
Second state. Caption below image is in Latin, French and Dutch: Riches make thieves, or, gold and silver have destroyed many.
6 Der Bruder Esel mit dem Gelt

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Etching and engraving. [Germany? Early 17th century].
19.5 x 32 cm, imageCA g3 xx
An ass is pictured defecating coins while peasants, merchants, and noblemen run to catch them.
7 Gellt Zeucht die Weltt. Mundum Trahit Pecunia

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Engraved, designed, and published by Mathias Greuter (1564–1638). [Strasbourg(?)] 1589.
23 x 27.8 cmCF g1 xx
First state. Gold coins form the wheels of a chariot, upon which is the World, while two noblemen blinded by money walk alongside. A group of peasants is held back by Poverty, standing on the wheel of Fortune.
8 [ The Two Deaths ]

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Engraving by Hieronymus Wierx (1553–1619), after Marten de Vos (ca. 1531–1603). Published by Hieronymus Cock, "Aux .4. Vents." [Antwerp, late 16th century].
29.8 x 32.5 cm, imageCF b9 xxx
A narrative in two parts. At left, a pious man receives riches from heaven; at right, Death prepares to strike a miser amidst his wealth.
9 Honor

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Engraving by Raphael Sadeler I (1560–1628), after Marten de Vos (ca. 1531–1603). [n.p., 1591].
22 x 25 cm, imageCF b8 x
Plate three from his series of four allegorical prints on the virtues after de Vos, representing also the four ages of man. A pious man turns away from a woman offering riches.
10 [ Justice Rewards Toil ]

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Engraving by Cornelis Cort (1533–78), after Federigo Zuccaro (or Zucchero, 1540–1609). Anton Lafreri, "formis." Romæ, 1566.
26.5 x 31.5 cmCF i1 xx
Justice, holding scales in one hand, offers riches to a kneeling peasant.
11 [ Avarice ]

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Engraving, in the style of Jan Saenredam (1565–1607). [Netherlands? ca. 1600].
21 x 14 cm, imageCF n9
Depiction of a man clutching money bags. "The miser, hoarding his treasure, lives amid riches, yet is always destitute." (Latin caption). The frog in the foreground is a symbol associated with sin, particularly that of hoarding worldly things.
12 Divitiæ

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Engraving by Karel van Mallery (ca. 1571–ca. 1635), after Marten de Vos (ca. 1531–1603). Philip Galle (1537–1612), "excud." [Antwerp, ca. 1600].
17.5 x 22.5 cm, imageCF b2
Riches, portrayed as a woman holding money, jewels, and silver, sits near a little girl who holds a mirror. She is Pride, the daughter of Riches.
13 [ Allegory of the Vanity and Transitory Nature of Worldly Possessions ]

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Engraving by Willem Isaakz Swanenburgh I (1581–1612), after Abraham Bloemaert (1564–1651). J. Razet, "divulg." [Netherlands] 1608.
26 x 18.5 cm, imageCF n1
This is a later state, with J. Razet's address. A woman sits beside a table laden with gold coins and other riches. She holds an urn with smoke rising out of it, a symbol of transience, and a peacock stands behind her, signifying vanity.
14 [ Allegory of Wealth and Luxury ]

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Engraved and published by Willem Isaakz Swanenburgh I (1581–1612), after Abraham Bloemaert (1564–1651). [Netherlands] 1611.
23.6 x 18.7 cm, imageCF n2
An earlier state was published in 1609. A similar engraving to 13; the woman sits at a table of money, silver chalices, and jewels. In the foreground are a crown and scepter, behind which smoke and bubbles rise from a cup—symbolizing the transience of power and glory.
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