Works Consulted

by Kenneth E. Carpenter

The compiler of a bibliography necessarily consults a large number of works, many of which turn out either not to be useful, or else to be useful in confirming that no appearance of the Way to Wealth exists within the scope of the work or has been overlooked. No attempt is here made to record every work consulted, or even every work cited

Some other works are so relevant to this bibliography that they must be recorded even if they have left no trace in the final product. Writings specifically about Franklin fall into this category, but so does a bibliography of Parson Weems

Works on the booktrade, book trade periodicals, and bibliographies of national scope are cited throughout the entries. Some were indispensable to the effort to date or localize certainh publications. Others were crucial to the effort to paint as complete a picture as possible of the dissemination of the Way to Wealth, in whatever language. Some are in print, some have been digitized, and some have been born digital.

Digital projects, both commercial and non-commercial, have been indispensable. They have made possible descriptions of appearances of Franklin’s text that could not otherwise have been found or seen, and they have, of course, also led this bibliographer to relevant information that he would not otherwise have found. The firms group their digital products in varied ways that are determined by their marketing needs but that can also make possible searches through a broader mass of material. Titles of segments change over time and there are other types of reorganization. It has seemed desirable to focus on the firms and their broad groupings rather than on specific products.

The online catalogs have not been listed, and neither have been the book-reviewing journals.

Scholarly Works

Aldridge, Alfred Owen. Franklin and His French Contemporaries. New York: New York University Press, 1957

Bertoni Jovine, Dina. I periodici popolari del Risorgimento, volume terzo: Catalogo. Milano, 1960. This volume is especially useful because specific references are often given to the contents of a periodical. Pace, see below, had found most of the Franklin articles, but not all

Darton, Lawrence. The Dartons: An annotated check-list of children’s books issued by two publishing houses, 1787-1876. London: The British Library; Newcastle, Del., Oak Knoll Press, 2004. This bibliography was indispensable to describing the editions published by the Darton firm

Eames, Wilberforce. “The Antigua Press and Benjamin Mecom, 1748-1765.” Proceedings of the American Antiquarian Society, n.s. 38 (1928): 303-348

Echeverria, Durand. The French image of America: a chronological and subject bibliography of French books printed before 1816 relating to the Amerian colonies and the United Stsates, by Durand Echeverria and Everett C. Wilkie. Metuchen, N.J.: Scarecrow Press, 1964

Elovson, Harald. Amerika i svensk litteratur, 1750-1820, en studie i komparativ litteraturhistoria. Lund, [1930]

Englekirk, John G. “Franklin en el Mundo Hispano.” Revista iberoamericana 21 (1956): 319-371.

Ford, Paul Leicester. Franklin Bibliography. A list of books written by, or relating to Benjamin Franklin. Brooklyn, N.Y., 1889. This pioneering bibliography, published almost 125 years ago, was a significant accomplishment for its time, and it has been much used in compiling this bibliography. I have not, however, systematically cited Ford. Although many library catalogs do provide the Ford no.. to have done so here, would often have required a note specifically pointing out new information. Such notes, or “Not in Ford,” would, I believe, not have been a service to the scholar today.

Green, James & Peter Stallybrass. Benjamin Franklin, writer and printer. Oak Knoll Press, Library Company of Philadelphia, The British Library, 2006. “From Poor Richard to The Way to Wealth: Anonymity and Authorship,” 117-143, was crucial

[Green, James]. “A New Way to Wealth,” The Annual report of the Library Company of Philadelphia for the year 1996. Philadelphia, 1997, 8-11

Gulick, Sidney L. A Chesterfield Bibliography to 1800, 2d ed. Charlottesville, Published for the Bibliographical Society of America by the University Press of Virginia, 1979. WTW was often included in Chesterfield

Halácsy, Katalin. ‘The Image of Benjamin Franklin in Hungary.” Hungarian Studies in English (1976): 9-26

Huang, Nian-Sheng. Benjamin Franklin in American thought and culture 1790-1990. Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society, 1994

Katona, Anna. “The Hungarian Image of Benjamin Franklin.” Canadian-Amerian Review of Hungarian Studies 4 (1977): 43-57

Lienhardt, Claire. “Le Bonhomme Richard” de Benjamin Franklin à la conquête de l’Europe: La diffusion d’un best-seller amériain en France, en Grande-Bretagne et dans les États Allemands, doctoral thesis. Université de Paris I-Sorbonne, 1999. Lienhardt, who focussed on separately published editions, identified but did not describe them in detail. Thanks to this thesis, a number of French provincial editions are here recorded that would not otherwise have been found

McBride, John. “Benjamin Franklin As Viewed in France during the Bourbon Restoration (1814-1830).” Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society 100, no. 2 (April, 1956): 114-128.

Pace, Antonio. Benjamin Franklin in Italy. Philadelphia: The American Philosophical Society, 1958. The “Bibliography of Italian Frankliniana,” 413-439, was indispensable. Pace clearly traveled throughout Italy in his pursuit of everything relating to Franklin, and the Italian section of this bibliography would be significantly weaker without his work

The Papers of Benjamin Franklin, ed. Leonard W. Labaree et al., 37 vols. to date. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1959-. Vol. 7, 326-339, deals with the publishing history of WTW. The files that lay behind this essay contributed significantly to this bibliography

Pomeroy, Jane R. Alexander Anderson, 1775-1870: wooed engraver and illustrator: an annotated bibliography. New Castle, Del.: Oak Knoll Press; Worcester, MA: American Antiquarian Society, 2005. This 3-volume bibliography records, with a host of illustrations, the editions for children of WTW that were illustrated by Aleander Anderson and published by the firm of Samuel Wood. It has been crucial to sorting out and describing the largest quantity on printings brought out by a single publisher

Rémond, René. “La morale de Franklin et l’opinion française sous la Monarchie censitaire.” Revue d’histoire moderne et contemporaine 7 (1960): 193-214

Rodriguez Gil, Maria E. “Ann Fisher: First Female Grammarian.” Historical Sociolinguistics and Sociohistorical Linguistics 2 (2002). This is an online journal, and the URL for the article is Ann Fisher was editor of The Pleasing Instructor, an anthology that contained WTW and went through numerous editions

Swift, Lindsay. Catalogue of works relating to Benjamin Franklin in the Boston public library, including the collection given by Doctor Samuel Abbott Green, with the titles of similar works not in the library. Boston: Published by order of the Trustees, 1883

Victory, Beatrice Marguerite. Benjamin Franklin and Germany. Philadelphia: University on Pennsylvania, 1915. Published as Americana Germanica, 21

Weems, Mason Locke. Mason Locke Weems: His works and ways in three volumes. New York, 1929. 3v., especially vol. 1: A bibliography left unfinished by Paul Leicester Ford, edited by Emily Ellsworth Ford Skeel. Not only did Weems write a life of Franklin in which WTW was published, he also included WTW in two other works brought out under his editorship

Welch, d’Alté Aldridge. Bibliography of American children’s books printed prior to 1821. Worcester, MA: American Antiquarian Society, 1963-1968.

Imprint and National Bibliographies, Plus Book History Materials

Alden, John Eliot. Rhode Island imprints, 1717-1800. New York: Published for the Bibliographical Society of America [by] R. R. Bowker, 1949

Almindeligt Dansk-Norsk forlags catalog, udgivet af Forlagsforeningen i Kjøbenhavn. Hauniae, 1841. Edited by Frederik Fabricius

Alphabetische naamlijst van boeken, welke sedert het jaar 1790 tot en met het jaar 1832, in Noord-Nederland zijn uitgekomen. Amsterdam, 1835

Bibliografia italiana, ossia Elenco generale delle opere d’ogni specie e d’ogni lingua stampate in Italia e delle italiane pubblicate all’estero. 12 v., 1835-1846

Bibliographie de la France, ou Journal général de l’imprimerie et de la librairie. 1811-

Bristol, Roger Pattrell. Supplement to Charles Evans’ American bibliography. Charlottesville, VA: Bibliographical Society of the University of Virginia, 1970.

British Book Trade Index (BBTI):

Brown, Philip A. H. London publishers and printers, c. 1800-1870. London, British Library, 1982

Drake, Milton. Almanacs of the United States. New York: Scarecrow Press, 1962

English Short Title Catalogue (ESTC) Url:

Estreicher, Karol Józef Teofil. Bibliografia polska. New York: Johnson Reprint Corp., 1964-65. Vols. 9 and 10, covered from 1700 to 1870

Evans, Charles. American bibliography. Chicago, 1903-1955

Howard-Hill, Trevor H. The British book trade, 1475-1890: a bibliography. London: British Library; New Castle, DE: Oak Knoll Press, 2009

Hansging, Antonin. Katalog českých knih od 1. 1774 až dok konce g. 1839. W Praze, 1840.

Hunt, .C. J. The book trade in Northumberland and Durham to 1860. Newcastle upon Tyne, 1975. This is a publication of the project on the History of the book trade in the North

Linnstöm, Hjalmar. Svenskt boklexikon: åren 1830-1865. Stockholm, 1883-84

Rodrigues, A. Gonçalves. A tradução em Portugal: tentative de resenha cronológica das traduções em lingua portuguesa excluido o Brasil de 1495 a 1950. Lisboa: Imp. Nac.-Casa de Moeda, 1992. This bibliography also records translations in periodicals. Two volumes were consulted: vol. 1: 1495-1834; vol. 2: 1835-1850

Shaw, Ralph R., and Richard H. Shoemaker. American bibliography: a preliminary checklist. New York: Scarecrow Press, 1958-1966.

Shipton, Clifford Kenyon and James E. Mooney. Index of American imprints through 1800: the short-title Evans. Worcester, MA: American Antiquarian Society; Barre, MA: Barre Publsihers, 1969

Silva, Innocencio Francisco da. Diccionario bibliographico portuguz (Lisboa, 1858-1923). Vol. 10 (1870) was particularly relevant

Svenskt bibliographi eller Allmän förteckning öfwer utkomna böcker . . . utgifwen af Boktryckeri-societeten, 1828-1865. Not all years have been available to me

Svodnyĭ katalog russkoĭ knigi grazhdanskoi pechati XVIII veka, 1725-1800 (Moskva: Izd. Gos. Biblioteki SSSR im V.I. Lenina, 1962-1967). 5v.

Todd, William B. A directory of printers and othes in allied trades, Londn and vicinity 1800-1840 (London: Printing Historical Society 1972)

World Biographical Information System Online (WBIS). Translators and others involved in Franklin editions were looked up in this source, as well as in national biographical, dictionaries not included in it.

Online Collections of Digitized Texts

AAS Historical Periodicals Collection. Hosted by EBSCO

Archive of Americana. Published by Readex, a division of NewsBank. Under this overarching title are a number of different collections that have been indispensable: America’s Historical Newspapers & Early American Imprints, Series 1 and Series 2, covering from 1639 to 1819. These are cited as Readex.

Early Canadiana Online. This database was launched with material digitized from the Canadian Institute for Historical Microreproductions, but one Canadian item has only been found in the microfiche, not in the digital collection

Eighteenth Century Collections Online (ECCO). Published by Gale

Gale NewsVault. Under this general heading are a number of individual products: Burney Collection Newspapers, 19th Century British Library Newspapers; British Newspapers, 1600-1950, 19th Century U.S. Newspapers, 19th Century UK Periodicals Series

Gallica. This is the site that provides access to the material digitized by the Bibliothèque nationale de France. These materials are not accessible through GoogleBooks


HathiTrust Digital Library. Much of the content is available on GoogleBooks, but Google does not provide systematic access to periodical volumes, whereas Hathi, thanks to its metadata, does so

ProQuest. Its American Periodical Series Online and its British Periodicals were crucial resources

VD18 Digital (Digitale Bibliothek Deutscher Drucke des 18. Jahrhunderts

ZVDD (Zentrales Verzeichnis Digitalisierter Drucke). This covers more than 18th-century material.

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