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Other Professions

E. C. Allen Collection
Mss 680 1871-1896 A425
Includes letters from Phoebe Hanaford, regarding book publications.

Chester I. Barnard Collection
Mss 810 1925-1961 B259
Includes letters to Maria Rogers written between 1947 and 1958. She was a sociologist and editor of the newsletter, Autonomous Groups.

Brighton Beach Music Hall Collection
Mss 694 1908-1914
Programs and contracts of a vaudeville theatre in Brooklyn, New York, from 1908 to 1914 document women singers, dancers, and other vaudeville and music hall performers.

Henry Sturgis Dennison Collection
Mss 49 1900-1952
The papers of Henry S. Dennison (1877-1952), author and President of Dennison Manufacturing Company, include an office memoir, his office records, and correspondence regarding vocational education for women, as well as notes for speeches and books on scientific management and industrial relations.

Gimbels and Saks Collection
Mss 776 1939-1960
Includes collective bargaining agreements of mid-twentieth-century New York department stores employing women retail clerks.

Eli Goldston Collection
Mss 351 1961-1974
The papers of a Boston, Massachusetts, executive include materials on family social policy; women artists, writers, editors, and office workers; and Elaine Goldston's activities in her husband's career.

Hunnewell Collection
Mss 733 1823-1869 H
Correspondence of merchant James Hunnewell includes letters from Susan Hunnewell in Charlestown, Massachusetts, from the secretary of the Dorchester Sailor's Friends Society, and from missionaries and their families who were living in Hawaii between 1820 and 1850.

J. Howard Nichols Collection
Mss 766 1856-1905 N619
The Nichols collection includes letters from his mother, daughters, and sisters, one of whom worked as a missionary in Turkey in the mid-nineteenth century.

Resseguie Collection
Mss 776 c.1945-1966
Contains the research files of Harry E. Resseguie for a publication on the history of the department store in the second half of the twentieth century. Clippings from Women's Wear Daily and other newspapers, as well as manuscript notes, offer a wealth of information on all aspects of the history of the department stores and the retail industry.

E. H. Stewart/Higbee Company Collection
Mss 776 1932-1944
Survey records for a Cleveland, Ohio, department store contain information on salary ranges, a poll of buying habits in the area, as well as reports and manuals for a company whose business was dominated by women.

Ward and Gow Collection
Mss 767 1895-1919
Includes payrolls for office staff, theater staff, and music hall performers.



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Page from the account book of Nathaniel Chamberlin recording a payment in 1784 to Mrs. Otes for "doctring."

Prior to the nineteenth century, many women worked as midwives and healers. Often they learned their skills from other women within a master-apprentice relationship. In the account book of Nathaniel Chamberlin, he credited Mrs. Otes in 1784 for "doctring" the hand of his daughter Lydia. Mrs. Otes may have learned her skills from her husband, who was a doctor in the town of Pembroke, Massachusetts. He was the Chamberlin family doctor, but stopped appearing in the Chamberlin account book in the 1770s. Possibly, Mrs. Otes took over part of her husbandís practice after he died.

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Letter from Juliana Backus to Frances [Backus], August 5, ca. 1870.

By the mid-nineteenth century, women were no longer receiving informal training as healers. Medicine had become increasingly professionalized and required a university degree and acceptance into medical organizations. Women were often excluded from universities and professional associations. In order to enter the field, women had to struggle to be admitted. Nevertheless, some nineteenth-century women did go to medical school and opened up practices throughout the United States. However, even after achieving degrees and professional acceptance, people were often skeptical of their skills. In this letter to her cousin written in the 1870s, Juliana Backus voices her distrust of a "lady doctor":

[I] cannot help thinking that your Lady Doctor has made a grand mistake in calling the spot under your eye a canker. Has she made medicine a study & received a Diploma? I should be afraid to trust to her knowledge. If you had your motherís good old Dr. Terry . . . he could tell you what was the trouble.

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